Jimenez-Sanchez was born in Mexico City and received his MD from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). He completed his residency in Pediatrics at the National Institute of Pediatrics and obtained his Ph.D. in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, USA.
He is the leading investigator in the Mexican Genome Diversity Project and the Mexican Medical Resequencing Initiative. Jimenez-Sanchez's work has resulted in the publication of articles and chapters in peer reviewed journals and books. He received the Research in Pediatrics Award from the Society for Pediatric Research in 1999. Along with his colleagues David Valle and Barton Childs, he produced the first medical analysis of the human genome. He received the National Award in Clinical Investigation "Dr. Miguel Otero" from the Government of Mexico. In April of 2003, he received the Silanes Chair in Genomic Medicine. In 2004, he received the Golden Masters Award from the International Forum of Business Administration.