The Curious Case of the Stubby Thumb


Photo: A BDD thumb (left) and a normal thumb (right)

by Rosa Lin/Medill News Service

“What happened to your thumb?”

“Did you accidentally smash it in the door?”

A thumb was outstretched in the circle of sixth-graders. It had a most peculiar shape, being relatively thin and normal near the base, and then suddenly capped off with a bulbous, short tip, reminiscent of a slightly flattened pearl onion.

The thumb belonged to 10-year old me.  And I was showing it off proudly among my bemused friends.

“See, the other one's like this too!” I stretched out its equally short and bulbous sister. Everyone gaped, laughed, and held the thumb up for inspection.

“You must've bitten your fingernails too often when you were little!”

“Did you jam your thumb playing basketball?”

Why, no, I was born this way. If you're like me, you probably fielded these questions in your youth and wondered whether anybody else in the world has thumbs like yours.

Wonder no more – these thumbs are known in scientific circles as brachydactyly type D, a type of thumb characterized by a shortened distal phalanx (the bone at the tip of the digit) – and we are about to plumb the history, prevalence, myths and genetic basis behind these thumbs.

Most people have a straight, upright thumb, with a nail bed equal to or longer than the nails on their fingers. Some people have a “hitchhiker's thumb” where the tip can bend back almost 90 degrees. Finally, a few people – from 0.10 to 3 percent of a population – have a shortened thumb, a feature colloquially known as club thumb, stub thumb, toe thumb, potter's thumb, hammer thumb and most unappealingly, murderer’s thumb. Fortunately the thumb has been christened neutrally by scientists as brachydactyly type D, so henceforth we shall stick with the designation BDD.

BDD was first characterized by fortune tellers practicing palmistry. According to's page on Indian palmistry:

"The Murderer's Thumb Unveiled - The clubbed thumb was traditionally called the 'murderer's thumb' denoting the powerful temper of those who carried it. This thumb has a short first phalange (section) and is broad. The tip of the thumb is fleshy and the thumbnail is short and broad. According to those who know, people with clubbed thumbs [however] are strong willed and can control their emotions."

Such a description is rather more palatable than's take:

"This thumb is in a shape of a club. People possessing this type of thumb are animalistic in nature and thought system. They bear brutality of Elementary type. They can harm or murder out of callousness. They lack premeditation and depth."

Ouch! This leads the meeker among the BDD carriers to wonder: why such a dark reputation among chirologists? For the record, chirologists are fortunetellers.

“When these [traits] started getting studied in the late 19th century … there was a push to link [physiological] traits with personality traits. There's no real scientific connection between BDD and any personality trait though,” said Dr. Nathaniel H. Robin, an active clinical genetics practitioner and professor at University of Alabama at Birmingham, who authored a paper on BDD.

BDD is so named because it is one of many traits of brachydactyly, the term given for shortened fingers and toes due to underdeveloped bones in hands and feet. For example, there is brachydactyly type A, where middle phalanges of one, several, or all of the fingers and/or toes are shortened; brachydactyly type B, where distal phalanges and nails of the fingers and/or toes are small or absent; and so forth up to type E. Usually brachydactyly is an isolated trait, meaning that it is not associated with other medical conditions and is generally harmless.

Contrary to what many people with BDD think, BDD “is a fairly common trait,” Robin said. It stays in the population because “it's a benign variant,” meaning it is neither advantageous nor detrimental to those that express the trait.

According to "Abnormal Skeletal Phenotypes," published in 2005 by Alessandro Castriota-Scanderbeg and Bruno Dallapiccola, two prominent radiologists, BDD occurs in 0.4 percent of whites and 0.1 percent of blacks in the United States, with a higher incidence in Israel (1.6 percent of Jews, 3 percent of Arabs) and Japan. In three-quarters of cases, BDD occurs bilaterally, which means it appears on both thumbs, while in the rest of the cases it only appears on one thumb, with the other thumb normal.

There is also a skew among genders. The pioneering human geneticist Julia Bell found in a 1951 study that 60 percent of those affected with BDD were female, while 40 percent were male. The geneticist Robert Stecher confirmed the preponderance for females in a 1957 study. The reason for this may be due to incomplete penetrance, a genetic term that means that a trait fails to express itself even though a person carries the necessary genes. In the BDD case, there is evidence to suggest that the trait has complete penetrance in females and incomplete penetrance in males. BDD is also an autosomal dominant gene, which means a person only needs to inherit it from one parent in order to express the trait.

In the past 10 years, scientists have been able to gain more insight into the genetic basis of BDD. In a 2003 study published in The American Journal of Human Genetics, researchers reported that two mutations in the gene HOXD13 may contribute to BDD.

So who has this trait? One of its most famous carriers is Megan Fox, an actress starring in the "Transformers" movies. She carries the trait on only one thumb, signaling incomplete penetrance. Due to her profile as a celebrity, discovery of her BDD thumb was highly publicized. Russian author and Nobel laureate Alexander Solzhenitsyn is also purported to have at least one BDD thumb. Other people with the trait include: Malin Akerman (US actress), Tory Mussett (Australian actress), Ashley Lynn Cafagna (US actress), and Kristen van Der Noot (Germany DJ and model).

The most speculated of BDD carriers, however, is past European royalty. Despite valiant efforts, I did not find which royals exactly are implicated, so we shall briefly suspend any curiosity along those lines. The European royalty had higher than normal incidence of inbreeding due to a desire to keep their bloodlines “pure.” This resulted in any abnormality or mutation, such as hemophilia, reappearing in higher rates in descendents, instead of being flushed out by a set of significantly different genes. BDD is claimed by some to be a marker of descent from European royalty. However, as BDD occurs all around the world and is both the result of inheritance and random mutation, this, if true, would only apply to a small subset of those with BDD.

“I have no idea” if BDD is linked to European royalty, Robin said. “It may be true – I have no idea.”

At least I have an idea whether mine is linked to European royalty - I'm 100 percent East Asian!




I feel the same way. both my

I feel the same way. both my thumbs look like a big balled chicken  and I always catch people looking and smirking. I try to grow my thumb nails a little but I just can't seem to get rid of my big toes for thumbs haha. but there are a lot of annoying people out there and you can't stop them all from laughing. so don't beat em, join em and laugh away. then go home and cry like me lol 



I read your post and as I am the same age it made me smile. I have 'hated' my wierd thumb my whole life-especially since I'm an introvert and hate anyone noticing anything about me....but both my kids (now 18 & 21 years) who have 'normal thumbs', both like to hold my wierd thumb, stroke it and tell it that it is special and loved. :) Gotta love confident kids :) Hope you (and me) can stop hiding them subconsiously before we are in a nursing home at least :) LOL

I'm Jewish and I have BDD on both thumbs, and a shortened bone in one of my big toes. Having it in only one foot made me very self conscience as a child, but now I've grown to like it for making me unique. People seem to notice my BDD frequently, but I only ever receive compliments on how cute my thumbs are. I think that my thumbs do have an advantage with typing because of the angle of my hands on the keyboard. One distinct and obvious disadvantage is that my thumbs don't reach as far as other people's thumbs, making some notes on musical instruments more difficult to play for me.

I have two matching clubbed thumbs and was mildly embarrassed by them when growing up and as a young adult but most people don't notice them. A Chinese friend called them my LUCKY THUMBS! My mother had two and I think her father did but I never met him and she was a little vague about telling me. From photos I suspect that one of my grandfather's brothers had them too. None of my four children inherited them nor my grandchildren. I searched the internet for the condition only recently and find it fascinating to read all this. Thank you!

Never knew it was a classified condition, but I have two proudly, very stubby thumbs. The last section is about half the length of a normal thumb, and like many others here, I have had to explain them many times. Thing that was funny for me is that I don't recall having to explain my thumbs as a child, but as I got older, people noticed them and asked about them.

My wife doesn't particularly care for my thumbs, but it's not like it stopped her from marrying me (9 years so far). However, when my daughter was born, the first thing she 'checked' on her was to see if she inherited my thumbs...she did not.

Lol, the first thing my

Lol, the first thing my husband did when our daughter was born is check her thumbs! So far she's escaped but she's only the first. I'm hoping at least one will inherit my thumbs ;)

I have one BDD thumb and

I have one BDD thumb and neither of my parents had BDD. I have two kids,a boy and a girl, my daughter also has one BDD thumb (opposite mine) and didn't really notice the development of hers until close to age five...she loves that she has a thumb just like mine!!

I've always been proud of my

I've always been proud of my unusual thumbs because they were just like my paternal grandmother's and paternal aunt's.  I also checked my son's thumbs when they were born!  Neither of them inherited my thumbs.  I've asked my cousins about their children's thumbs and there is one girl who has them.  I had no idea there were so many other people with these thumbs and that they had so many names for them!

I am a mother and have BDD in

I am a mother and have BDD in both thumbs and my eldest son also has BDD in both. He's like me and doesn't like  I also have a short third finger on my left hand and was told as a child that I was related to royalty and that it was something to do with Cromwell and having a special sword made because of his short finger on his left hand. To add to this, I have 2 knuckles on my left hand, that are set back. This stops my fingers closing together properly and 1 knuckle set back on my right hand having the same effect. Ooo lucky me!

Hi Lee, I was interested to

Hi Lee, I was interested to read about your short third finger, and your different knuckles.  I have a very short third finger on my left hand too, missing knuckle and bone, and a deformed knuckle on my right hand third finger.  I thought these were just quirks passed from my father to me, (lucky me out of six children!).  My husband has beautiful hands and I always hoped our children (boys) would inherit them, but no luck - but no obvious malformations like me either.  And now we have a newborn grand-daughter and my only wish was that she have her grandfathers hands.  Little Bella has polydactyly - an extra thumb on her right hand...I am heartbroken, and guilty.  Since her birth I  have spent a lot of time on the Internet, and realise I have brachydactyly affecting both index fingers and my toes as well.  One son has affected toes.  I have always hated my hands and used to hide them.  Now I use them to judge people - those who exclaim and ask for a look will never be my true friends.  One doctor who noticed them couldn't contain his excitement - his phone was shaking as he took his photo....I will never go to him again..

Hi Gaye

Hi Gaye

It's funny you say that about your past doctor. I was just thinking  today- if my doctor realized my clubbed thumb that he'd probably be very excited and interested because of it's rarity. I would totally understand since I think it's pretty interesting myself. I however only have my right thumb affected so I haven't been very self concious about it, but if more fingers were affected Id probably be more sensitive to that fact.

I think it's natural for people to be curious and ask questions when they first meet you. What matters more is how they treat you afterward. I think it's better for someone to ask up front than to wonder and stare all the time. that is only my opinion though. I'm sorry you've had such guilt over your affected fingers and for your affected kin. 

I have two club thumbs but I

I have two club thumbs but I also have brachymetatarsis, bilateral, on my fourth toe of each foot. I had the same experience with a doctor - this one a podiatrist. He was so excited when he saw my feet - said he'd never seen it in person and was excited to tell all of his fellow doctors about it. I mean, really? I thought it was unprofessional and rude.

I used to be embarassed about my feet when I was younger but now that I am a grown woman I just don't care. And most people don't ask me about them, the way they did when I was younger. I do enjoy finding someone else like me, but many people with the condition don't wear shoes that show their toes or go barefoot. So if they have them, I usually find out because they notice mine (or we are getting pedicures at the same time).

Finally I belong!!!!

I am an asian Indian with two of these thumbs. I have two brothers and a sister. One brother of mine also has two BDD thumbs. My mom has one. Her father had the stubbiest two of these. After that I lost the trail :)

I feel so glad to find all this info. It helps me realize I am normal.

I also have one of these thumbs on my left hand. I am half Danish and half Czech. I have three daughters and none of them have inherited my toe thumb. I am told that me Great grandfather on my mothers side had a thumb like mine.

When I was a kid, other kids sometimes noticed my shorter thumbs, but now, never. I'm a 5'11" African American woman, where all of my limbs are long, including my fingers, except for my thumbs. People who have known me for years, have yet to notice the thumbs.

How ironic that my most abnormal physical trait, a trait that if rounded to whole numbers would be 0% of the population, is something people rarely notice. I didn't even know there was a name for it. I've always had long pianists fingers, and these short, stubby, double-jointed thumbs.

But, I've always loved my weird little thumbs. It's one physical quirk about me that I would never change.

I have one thumb like this and on my dads side of the family all the females have it in only one thumb. My grandmother had it and all the female grandchildren and great grand children have it. Some have it on the left and some have it on the right.

Im 15 and I boths shtubby big toes and thumbs. I never realised that everyones thumbs were like this untill a few weeks ago! I dont know about being desended form royalty but it gives me something to brag about to my freinds! Im just glad to hear that im not the only one as I have never met someone with the same'advantage' as I like to think it as. :)

Me too. I have two of these thumbs. For as long as I can remember, when I meet new people, I have taken a glance at their thumbs. I always hope to meet people with the same thumbs. When I was a kid, I would always conceal my thumbs inside my hands. Now, I don't care too much - well, maybe just a bit ... still.

I have one BDD thumb, the right one, like a lot of others I didn't know this was a named condition, just thought I had a funny thumb and told people I used to suck it as a baby, I think I was told this by my Mum. As far as I know no family members have it but not sure as I am part of a large family so will look out at he next family gathering. I am 47 and still get embarrassed if people stare at my thumb, I hope this will change now I can explain what it is. A very interesting and informative read, thanks for the post :-)

I am like you i have always

I am like you i have always told people that i sucked my thumbs as a child and that is what caused my thumbs to look like they do. I am 28 years old and only today finding out there is a name for it. I had no idea!!!

I have one (my right thumb) and my mother has 2. One of my teachers in high school had one (her left) and I have recently met a new friend with 2. They're the only ones I had ever seen so it's very exciting to know there is a term for it and that there are others around the world. I'm of English and Scottish heritage but all were fairly poor farm labourers etc, certainly no royalty for me unless it was prior to the 1500s. Unless the great great grandfather I can't trace a birth for was the illegitimate son of royalty and a maid perhaps? LOL

I also have two club thumbs. I thought they were normal thumbs until half way through primary school when I realised they weren't normal at all! No one in my family (that I know of) has ever had club thumbs so it's good to know its not just me with them!

You're lucky to have those thumbs! I'm a 34 yo men and I have thin thumbs (if I put my thumb on an american penny, it has the exact same width, that is 19 millimiters) and it's rather special when I see, for example, a 14yo girls with "toe thumbs" a bit lager than my thumbs. I've developed a fetish and now I like comparing my thin thumbs with women that have larger ones... It's special but it's part of me and I have to live with it! :)

I'm 100% Korean, and my right thumb is short. I was told my grandfather, mom's side, was like this, but no one else is my family is.

I'm also Korean with a short

I'm also Korean with a short right thumb and hitchhiker's thumb bilaterally. I was adopted, however, so I can only assume 100% Korean. Although, I am usually recognized as Korean when "real" Koreans meet me. Unfortunately I don't know my biological family history. It's good to know that it's an autosomal dominant trait and benign to boot. Mystery solved today.

I have two identical thumbs, I inherited them from my Grandfather on my mothers side, I neve met him but was always told of his thumbs, so I recently scanned an old photo of him and zoomed in on his hands and sure enough his thumbs were just the same as mine, I always check each new baby that is born in the family but so far no more toe thumbs have appeared, I hope I am not the last generation, as I have always found them fun to have, a talking point at parties, I love my thumbs.......

I have it on both thumbs as well as short/stubby fingers/fingernails o.o nd same with my toes

I have 2 clubbed thumbs and I've always been bullied for it in school. I thought I was such a freak and that I had a really strange deformity because no one in my family has it. But now I know that I'm not the only one.

I have two symetrical stubby thumbs, which barely reach above the base of my index fingers. My big toes are also short and stubby. However, this has never been a problem to me though people have occasionally remarked on it. I beglong to the BDD group on Facebook and it's interesting to hear about other people's views and experiences.

I to have BDD thumbs on both hands. My older sister and my ant both have them on both hands. Funny, I didn't even know that is was a disorder :-). I have never had a problem with them.

I am still embarrassed about mine but after reading this I feel better about myself! I only have one thumb and friends use to tease me but the gene is quite interesting! BDD ppl unite! Haha!

i have BDD on both 13 and i thought i was the only one and that i was cursed!^~^ My mom and Dad both dont have it though.
i dont let anyone look at my thumbs because i let my friend see and she
laughed and made fun of a little happier now that i know what they are,and that im not alone.And now i have something to brag about,that i might actually have royalty in my bloods.BEAT THAT ALL YOU HATER'S!!!!!!!!!!!

I have always wondered what is wrong with me..I have two of these but one is smaller than the other one. I am dutch. I have always wondered why I have this. I'm happy to read this article. I no longer feel alone! long live the chub thumbs!

Strange I just decided to google my thumbs - I've had them all my life!! I like the bit about descending from Royalty because I was told when I was a child we had an Italian count in our ancestors so that will do for me !

I have two thumbs also..very one else in my family has them, and it was the first thing I checked when my daughter was born, but she didn't get them. I like the thought of royalty also since my mom's side has been traced to English Royalty also.

I have 2 club thumbs, which I inherited from my Mom. I have 4 children and they have normal thumbs, but they are always on the outlook for someone with this defect. As a teacher on our way to school from res, a new lady said she doesn't have a pen only a pencil as short as her thumb, thinking to myself, if it was my thumb it would be rather short, and surprisingly she showed us her club thumb!

I have two "toe thumbs" and so does my daughter. We both love them, but admittedly our thumbs can never completely fill out a pair of gloves :) I grew up hiding them, but as soon as I met others with them, I stopped worrying about it. People notice and comment, but it just makes for an interesting topic for conversation!

I'm also Jewish like Melissa, though a middle aged spinster. You should research Dr.Richard Goodman's research on this genetic variant, including his pics.

After reading alot of posts on this, I think there's a preponderance of both Jews and Italians with this trait. But I've also seen it on a Yemenite girl in Israel, as well as a curly-haired blond, blue eyed Ashkenazic girl in Israel.

Due to reading so many respondents to blogs of this topic, including "About the World of Clubbed Thumbs - alfparelli.wordpress", I see that i myself am very different than fellow stub thumbers, since my hands & body are much more genetically inferior, causing me extreme grief & suffering in my lifetime. I now realize that most stub thumbers have led carefree normal lives, unlike myself, who's been to hell and never got back. Not excluding the metaphysical realm of sheer extreme bad luck, of the sort only acknowledged by Evelyn Paglini.

my grandfather has these

my grandfather has these thumbs and toes he was sicilia.  My two sons have the thumbs, while one of them has the toes too.  My granddaughter who favors the italian side only has the toes.  We always called it the Ferrante curse.  but I like the idea of being from royaly.

Hey i am 13 and I have two thumbs. It was known to everybody last year and my friends and i still get a good laugh when we look at it. Finally, i decided to see if anyone else in my family has theses thumbs and no one did! and then people kept saying uh oh the milk man did it. So then i started doing research. Thank You for putting this blog up and informing everyone that they aren't not the only ones in the world that have thumbs like that!

Very interesting reading!! Never knew it was an actual condition but I have two BDD thumbs, which I inherited from my dad. Funnily enough my dad only has one BDD thumb, the other is normal. One of my sisters also has a matching pair, as does one of my female cousins, and another female cousin has just one BDD like my dad. We dont know of any other relatives past my dads generation that had them, and it seems a big hit and miss with who inherits them as we are a fairly big family with quite a few boys but none of them have inherited it. We do have unique "family big toe" shape too that some of us have inherited, including my little 2 yr old niece, a stubby big toe a bit like the thumbs, so cute on her!! I havent inherited them but another cousin and my other sis (the babys mom) neither of whom have the thumbs, have the toes a bit! Very odd! They have always been a talking point for us that most people are fascinated by and find really cute!! Only the odd "eugh, wierd!" comment. But I like being that little bit different! Me and my bro also suffer from keloid scarring, another joy i inherited (even tho my parents have never developed one themselves)... not so thrilled about that one!! I wonder if this could be in any way linked??? You never know...!

My daughter has two

My daughter has two symmetrical 'potters thumbs'. We tell her how awesome and unique her groovy thumbs are and she is always in the look out for fellow thumb buddies. I don't want her to feel ashamed or embarrassed about her little thumbs like my best friend growing up did. Interestingly there is also keloid scarring in this family too (and simian lines on the palms). Coincidence or connection?

I am 36 yo female of Sicilian and Armenian decent. I have one BDD thumb and one regular. I inherited it from my Armenian side. My mother's aunt had all her fingers clubbed and she was very very small. She was only 4 feet tall. Other people on that side have it too. I have 2 kids and neither have it. My brother doesn't either. I also knew two other girls growing up that had it too.

I have one of these thumbs on my right hand. I've always found it hilarious and would show it off in school, hahaha. I'm proud of my funny thumb that everyone told me looks like a toe.

The only times it's frustrating is when knitting (because I have to hold needles differently) and if I got fake nails... So now I just do my nails myself, hah!

My right thumb is BDD but my left thumb is not. I write with my left hand. I discovered that my daughter's child, my granddaughter, also has mismatched thumbs. She is right handed and her BDD is on her left hand. My question to those of you with mismatched thumbs, does the location of your BDD affect whether you are right or left handed. My daughter asked me about this but since the other members of my family that I know with this trait haven't answered my question. 'My mother's sister had what we referred to as mismatched thumbs. My aunt's daughter also has mismatched thumbs. Thanks


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